The relative contribution of psychological variables to predict schizotypal personality disorder among university students

  • Ali Mahmud Shoeib Professor of Mental Psychology, College of Education, Menofia University, Egypt
Keywords: Anxiety, Depression, Stress, Fear Of Rejection, Narcissism, Schizotypal Personality


The goal of the study was to determine how much narcissism, stress, anxiety, depression, and fear of rejection contribute to the likelihood that university students may develop schizotypal personality disorder. Additionally, the prevalence of these characteristics among college students, the correlation between the research variables, and whether or not these variables differ by gender. Sample size was 473 (33 males and 440 females) students in the Menofia University Faculty of Education, with a mean age of 22 and a standard deviation of 4,28. The present study changed the tools after evaluating them for internal consistency, reliability, and validity with EFA and CFA. Results revealed that the prevalence of the variables was roughly normal, that there were no sex differences, and that there were strong positive connections between the research variables. The factors narcissism, fear of rejection, stress, anxiety, and depression predicted the schizotypal personality.


Download data is not yet available.


Ackerman, R., Witt, E., Donnellan, M., Trzesniewski, K., Robins, R., & Kashy, D. (2011). What Does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Really Measure? Assessment, 18(1), 67–87. doi:DOI: 10.1177/1073191110382845
Ackerman, R., Witt, E., Donnellan, M., Trzesniewski, K., Robins, R., & Kashy, D. (2011). What Does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Really Measure? Assessment, 18(1), 67-87. doi:DOI: 10.1177/1073191110382845
AlHadi, A., AlAteeq, D., Al Shari, E., Bawazeer, H., Alanazi, A., AlShomrani, A., . . . AlOwaybil, R. (2017). An arabic translation, reliability, and validation of Patient Health Questionnaire in a Saudi sample. Ann Gen Psychiatry, 16(32), 1-9. doi:DOI 10.1186/s12991-017-0155-1
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- DSM5. American Psychiatric Association.
American psychological Association. (2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of disorders.( 4th ed.) Text Rwvision,DsM-Iv-TR,Washington,Dc. American psychological Association.
APA. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Publishing.
Barrowclough, .., & Parle, M. (1997). Appraisal, psychological adjustment and expressed emotion in relatives of patients suffering from schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry,, 171, 26-30.
Butzlaf, R., & Hooley, J. (1998). Expressed emotion and psychiatric relapse: a meta-analysis,. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(6), 547–552.
Chien, C., Chan, Z.-Y., & Chan, S.-C. (2014). Testing the Psychometric Properties of a Chinese Version of the Level of Expressed Emotion Scale. Hindawi Publishing Corporation The Scientific World Journal, 2014. doi:
Clevland Clinic. (2023, May 5). Clevland Clinic; 866.588.2264. Retrieved from Schizotypal Personality Disorder:
Cole, J. (1988). The level of expressed emotion scale: a new measure of expressed emotion. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(3), 392-398.
Cole, J., & Kazarian, S. (1988). The level of Expressed Motion scale: a new measure of expressed emotion. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(3), 392–397.
Dong, F., Liu, J., Hodgson, N. A., & Medoff‐Cooper, B. (2021). Early life factors of schizotypal personality disorder inadolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 6(28), pp. 1092-1112.
Fonseca-Pedrero, E., Paino, M., Lemos-Giráldez, S., & Muñiz, J. (2011). Schizotypal traits and depressive symptoms in nonclinical adolescents. Comprehensive psychiatry, 3(52), pp. 293-300.
Foxhall, M., Hamilton‐Giachritsis, C., & Button, K. (2019). The link between rejection sensitivity and borderline personality disorder: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 3(58), pp. 289-326.
Gabbard, G., Schmahl, C., Siever, L., & Iskander , E. (2012). Personality disorders . In F. B. Michael J. Aminoff, Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Vol. 106, pp. 463-475). Elsevier.
Geiser, F., & Lieberz, k. (2000). Schizoid and Narcissistic Features in Personality Structure Diagnosis. Psychiatry and Psychology, 22(1), 19-24.
Ghaderi, D., Mostafaei, A., Bayazidi, S., & Shahnazari, M. (2016). Investigating the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with. International Journal of Medical Research &, 5(4), 119-126.
Greenberg , E. (2020, October 17). Psychology Today. Retrieved from What Everyone Ought to Understand About Schizoid Personality Disorder:
Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry(62), 23-56.
Havens, M. (2023, Jan 24). Retrieved from Understanding the Schizoid Core in Narcissism:
Hofman, A., van Duijn, C. M., Franco, O. H., Ikram, M. A., Janssen, H. L., Klaver, C. C., & Witteman, J. C. (2011). The Rotterdam Study:2012 objectives and design update. The European Journal of Epidemiology, 8(26), pp. 657-686.
Kuipers, L. (1992). Expressed emotion in 1991. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 27(1), 1-3.
Kubarych, T., Deary, I., & Austin, E. (2004). The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: factor structure in a non-clinical sample. Personality and Individual Differences(36), 857–872.
Lovibond, S., & Lovibond, P. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd ed. Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
Martens, L., & Addington, J. (2001). The psychological well-being of family members of individuals with schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36(3), 128-133.
Mason, O., & Claridge, G. (2006). The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE): Further description and extended norms. 82(2-3), pp. 203-211.
Mason, O., Linney, Y., & Claridge, G. (2005). Short scales for measuring schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research, 78, 293 – 296. doi:doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.06.020
Medina-Pradas, C., Navarro, J., Pousa, E., Montero, M., & Obiols, J. (2013). Expressed and Perceived Criticism, Family Warmth, and Symptoms in Schizophrenia. Spanish Journal of Psychology, eX, 1-8. doi:doi:10.1017/sjp.2013.25
Morf, C. C., & Rhodewalt, F. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: A dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological inquiry, 4(12), pp. 177-196.
Nafees, N., & Jahan, M. (2019). Fear of Rejection: Scale Development and Validation. Indian Journal of Psychological Science, 10(1), 70-76.
Premkumar, P., Dunn, A., Onwumere, J., & Kuipers, E. (2019). Sensitivity to criticism and praise predicts schizotypy in the non-clinical population: The role of affect and perceived expressed emotion. European Psychiatry, 55, `09-``5. doi:
Raskin, R., & Hall, C. (1979). A Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Psychological Reports,, 45(2), 590. doi:
Raskin, R., & Hall, C. (1981). The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: Alternate form reliability and further evidence of construct validity. 45(2), 159-162. doi:
Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A Principal-Components Analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and Further Evidence of Its Construct Validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(5), 890-902.
RASKlN, R., & HALL, H. (1979). A NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY. Psychological Reports(45), 590.
Spitzer RL, K., Williams, J., & Lowe, B. (1999). Patient Health Questionnaire Primary Care Study Group. Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. JAMA(282), :1737-1744.
Tran, T., Tran, v., & Fisher, J. (2013). Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women. BMC Psychiatry(13), 1-7. Retrieved from
Twenge, M. J., Konrath, S., & Bell Cooper, A. (2021). Egos deflating with the great recession:Across-temporal meta-analysis and within -campus analysis of the narcissistic peersonality inventory,1982-2016. Personality and Individual Differences, 179(3), pp. 1-110.
Van Os, J., Kenis, G., & Rutten, B. P. (2010). The environment and schizophrenia. Nature, 468(7321), pp. 203-212.
How to Cite
Shoeib, A. (2023). The relative contribution of psychological variables to predict schizotypal personality disorder among university students. International Journal of Research in Educational Sciences., 6(3), 61 - 138. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)